Water is called as the second life of human. Water supply is the term referred to use the supply of water to its consumption point in adequate quantity and with desired quality. As our environment is changing rapidly so supply of potable water is of much importance.
Objectives of Water Supply:
The main objectives of water supply are-
1. To supply water in adequate quantity
2. To supply wholesome and safe water
3.To make water available to everyone
Elements of water supply:
Major elements of water supply are-
1. Source of water
All fresh waters in the earth comes in the form of precipitation evaporated mainly from oceans,seas, and other sources of waters of surface water. A part of this precipitated water flows as surface water and remains trapped in depressed areas and another part enters in to the earth to form groundwater. Therefore, surface water and ground water are the main sources of water for water supply. Rainwater, being relatively free from contamination,can be a good source of water supply.
2. Collection of water
The collection system is dependent on the source of water supply. An intake with pumping facilities is required if the water is to be collected from a surface water source.
3. Treatment of water
Natural waters usually contain impurities which require treatment to make the water suitable for domestic water supplies.The type and degree of treatment required is dependent on the quality of water.In case of most surface waters, the treatment processes may involve removal of turbidity,color,taste and odour, and removal and destruction of pathogenic micro-organisms. Groundwaters are relatively free from disease producing bacteria but rich in mineral substances and may require removal of iron.hardness,arsenic,fluoride etc.
4. Distribution Network
A distribution network is needed to deliver water to individual consumers.The piped water supplies require distribution networks of pipes with storage reservoirs,pumping devices,standposts,valves and other appurtenances.In unpiped water supplies, the sources of water are to be distributed to make them easily accessible to the consumers.