Planning and Design Considerations of Low Cost Water Supply System

The general considertions for planning and design of a Low Cost Water Supply System in developing countries include:

  • The quality of the water supplied should not deteriorate below certain acceptable level(usually below national water quality standards or WHO guidelines),during the period for which the system has been designed.
  • Water in adequate quantity should be provided at all times and at a convenient location.
  • In the selection of sources, traditional sources should be given consideration for development of water supply systems.
  • Construction, Operation, Maintenance and repair should be within the competence of local technical staff.The available skills in the local community shall be utilized and improved,if required.
  • The equipment used shall be hardy, reliable and preferably available locally and the use of equipment should be minimum.
  • Construction and operation cost, should be minimum and imported materials should be avoided.
  • The use of pumping and chemicals should be minimum,skill attendance should be avoided.
  • The system should be planned together with the community to enable adaptation to local conditions,needs and preferences and to take advantage of local skills and knowledge.
  • Steps should be taken to consult the women,to understand their needs and involve them in local management to encourage their interest in keeping the system functional.
  • An appropriate in-built system should be made to monitor the performance of the treatment system.
  • Provisions should be made to prevent or deal with possible deterioration of quality of raw water or breakdown of the system.
  • Sustainability of the system should be given preference in the planning, design and pricing of water supply.