Foundation and its suitability:

Foundation is that part of the structure that carries the super imposed load on it and transfers and distributes the load to the soil strata over a greater area so that the intensity of load decreases.
Generally foundation is termed as the sub-structure. There are different types of foundation. Each of them are suitable for various conditions of the soil. The choice of foundation for structure depends upon several factors. These factors are generally comes from the quality of the soil.

The following factors are most dominant in deciding the foundation types for any structure:

  • Soil Conditions
  • Present of water table
  • Presence of hard strata
  • Property line
  • Soil type
  • Presence of clayey and bio-degradable soil/Pit soil
  • Presence of vegetation
  • Soil Gradation
  • Plasticity,Elasticity and liquidity of soil
  • Types of structures
  • Possibility of settlement etc.

Types of Foundation:

In broader sense foundation are of two types-

1) Shallow Foundation

2) Deep Foundation

Shallow Foundation:

A shallow foundation may be defined as a foundation which transmits the loads to the soil near to the surface of the earth and the load bulbs do not reach to the lower strata/sub-surface of the soil.

Shallow foundation are of many types. They are-

  • Continuous wall foundation
  • Strip foundation
  • Strap foundation
  • Mat foundation
  • Combined footing
  • Trapezoidal footing
  • Column Footing etc.

spread foundation

Deep Foundation:

Deep foundation transmits the upcoming loads to the deeper level of soil strata. Generally it is done to carry heavier loads and often it is very costly compared to shallow foundation.

Deep foundation are of various types. They are-

  • Pile foundation
  • Caisson
  • Cofferdam

pile foundation