3 most needed architectural material books

Books Name:Architectural Materials and Flooring System

Download From Here ( To download right click on your mouse and click save as..)


  • Exterior Architectural Materials
  • Interior architectural materials
  • Materials used in flooring
  • Exterior Flagstone flooring materials
  • Special internal flooring system

Books Name:Qualities, use and examples of sustainable building materials( architecture module)

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  • Three phases of building materials
  • Features of sustainable building materials
  • Key building matrials and sources
  • Examples of building materials
  • Applications of building materials

Books Name: Traditional materials and construction technologies use

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  • Clay, bricks and tiles
  • Wood, Stone
  • Metals and alloys
  • Adobe and Plasters









Top 10 Civil Engineering Schools 2014

Do you have a cherish to study in one of the top universities of the world in the field of civil and structural engineering? The QS worlds top universities by subject shows you the right way to the great Civil Engineering Schools 2014. This rankings were done in the view of the students choice, research done and academic syllabus,extracurricular activities and and on many factors.

Rank#1 :

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)- Score 87.0

Country: United States of America mit

University Type: Private Research University

Established: 1861

Contact Address:  Click Here to Get Contact Address 

Visit Wikipedia to know more about  Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Rank#2 :

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign- Score 86.8

Country: United States of America

University Type: Public Research Intensive University

Established: 1867

Contact Address:  Click Here to Get Contact Address 

Visit Wikipedia to know more about   University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Rank#3 :

University of California, Berkeley (UCB)- Score 85.7

Country: United States of America

University Type: Public Research University

Established: 1868

Contact Address:  Click Here to Get Contact Address 

Visit Wikipedia to know more about   University of California, Berkeley (UCB)

Rank#4 :

The University of Tokyo- Score -83.9

Country: Japan

University Type: Public Research Intensive University

Established: 1877

Contact Address:  Click Here to Get Contact Address 

Visit Wikipedia to know more about   The University of Tokyo

Rank#5 :

University of Cambridge- Score 83.9

Country: United Kingdom

University Type: Public Research Intensive University

Established: C. 1209

Contact Address:  Click Here to Get Contact Address 

Visit Wikipedia to know more about   University of Cambridge

Rank#6 :

University of Texas at Austin- Score 83.8

Country: United States of America

University Type: Public Research Intensive University

Established: 1883

Contact Address:  Click Here to Get Contact Address 

Visit Wikipedia to know more about   University of University of Texas at Austin

Rank#7 :

National University of Singapore (NUS)- Score 83.6

Country: Singapore

University Type: Comprehensive Research University

Established: 1905

Contact Address:  Click Here to Get Contact Address 

Visit Wikipedia to know more about   National University of Singapore (NUS)

Rank#8 :

Kyoto University- Score 83.1

Country: Japan

University Type: Public Research Intensive University

Established: 1869

Contact Address:  Click Here to Get Contact Address 

Visit Wikipedia to know more about   Kyoto University

Rank#9 :

Imperial College London- Score 82.8

Country: United Kingdom

University Type: Public Research Intensive University

Established: 1907

Contact Address:  Click Here to Get Contact Address 

Visit Wikipedia to know more about   Imperial College London

Rank#10 :

University of Hong Kong- Score 82.3

Country: Hong Kong

University Type: Public Research Intensive University

Established: 1911

Contact Address:  Click Here to Get Contact Address 

Visit Wikipedia to know more about   University of Hong Kong (155)

How to determine Liquid Limit of a Soil?

casagrande device

Liquid Limit:

Liquid limit of a soil is defined as the water content at which the soil mass changes its states from plastic state to liquid state.

Procedure for determining Liquid Limit: The liquid limit determining procedure suggested by Arthur Casagrande is the mostly used and followed procedures for determining the liquid limit of a soil mass. Apparatus Required for determining Liquid Limit: 1. Artur Casagrande Liquid Limit Device which consists of a brass cup attached with a crank at its one end. The brass cup can be dropped on a hard rubber base from a certain height by the help of the crank. 2. Casagrande suggested Groove. casagrande device liquid limit   casagrande device with full measurement  

Procedure of performing the Test:

      • To perform the test at first the soil is required to place on the apparatus with a flat surface on the top.



    • A groove of around 10 mm is then cut into the soil paste on the apparatus by the standard grooving tool.



    • The brass cup is then dropped from a height of 10 mm for several times by the help of crank until the groove in the paste meet around 12.7 mm(0.5 inch)



    • After meeting for about 12.7 mm at the bottom of the cup, the soil is collected and the respective moisture content of the soil is noted down.


    N.B. The moisture content at which the soil pat at the bottom of the cup meets for 12.7 mm for 25 blows in the appartus is termed as liquid limit according to Casagrande.

It is very difficult to perfectly match the liquid limit for 25 blows in the apparatus. Therefore at least three samples for same soil were taken and the test procedures were conducted with different moisture content.

After then a graph were plotted showing log of blows in the horizontal axis and respective moisture content in the vertical axis of the graph.

A straight line is obtained which is termed as flow curve. The slope of the flow curve is termed as flow index.

Moisture content for 25 blows were determined and are termed as Liquid Limit.



Slope of this line is termed as flow index and mathematically, flow index


Another method is also available in Asia and Europe named as Fall Cone Method for determining of liquid limit.

Learn more about Fall Cone Test on Wikipedia.


Shear Wall Design Excel spreadsheet


Shear Wall Excel Sheet Download

Shear wall is a wall designed to resist lateral pressure. In most of the cases it is designed to withstand with the wind and seismic loads in any civil structure. It is avertical element of any civil structure and generally adopted in multi-storied buildings. In places where there is a possibility of high seismic loads and wind action, it is must to use for achieving the best lateral load resisting capacity.A Shear wall could be of two types in terms of it load bearing capacity–

  • Load Bearing shear wall
  • Non-Load Bearing shear wall

Shear wall materials could be concrete or wood. Generally concrete is adopted for its higher load bearing capacity and for its good rigidity.

Generally it is built around the staircase or lift area.


The download link for the  excel sheet follows the ACI 318-11 code.
Download shear wall design Excel sheet From Here

Learn More about shear wall at Wikipedia SHEAR WALL WIKIPEDIA (173)

EXCEL Spreadsheets for Civil Engineers

images (2)

Excel Spreadsheets for Civil Engineers

OK, Today we are going to provide five important civil engineering excel spreadsheets for designing of structures.

images (2)

  • Concrete Beam Design Excel Software

Beam is a horizontal structure that carries the upcoming load and transfer the load to the column. Beam is a essential part of any structure especially in buildings. This excel software follows ACI 318-11 code and concrete neam both for new and existing can be designed adequately by this excel software.Concrete Beam Design, for New or Existing, Based on ACI 318-11. CLICK HERE to download Beam Design Software.


  • Wall Pier design Excel Software

  Pier is a supporting column for civil engineering structures. Click here to Download the Excel software. The software follows 2013 CBC and 2012 IBC code.


  • Special Moment Resisting FramSMRF SPECIAL MOMENT RESISTING FRAME e Design (SMRF)

                                                                                                                               This excel sheet is about Seismic Design for Special Moment Resisting Frame and is based on ACI 318-11. CLICK HERE to download this software




  • Column supporting discontinous system

  This spreadsheet is based on ACI 318-11 CODE.  Click here to download the excel spreadsheet software.


  • Concrete silo/Chimney/Tower Design Software

  This software provides the design of concrete silo,chimney and tower design. CLICK HERE to download the software. This software is based on ASCE 7-10, ACI 318-11 & ACI 313-97


Retaining wall Types and Definitions

cantilever Retaining Wall

Definition of Retaining Wall:

A retaining wall is a civil engineering structure that generally exists some balancing lateral pressure to resist the lateral pressure of earth,soil and water. An retaining wall is also built to resist the seepage water pressure.

Functions of Retaining Wall:

The main and basic function of retaining wall is to retain the soil i.e. lateral pressure. Generally retaining wall is built to resist the sloped earth and water front structures.

Forces acting on retaining wall:

  Lateral Earth Pressure Surcharge Pressure Active pressure and Passive pressure Self weight and Gravity forces Seepage pressure

Types of Retaining Wall:

          • Gravity Retaining Wall



Gravity Retaining Wall










  • Piling Retaining WalL

Piling Retaining Wall










  • Cantilever Retaining Wall

cantilever Retaining Wall










  • Anchored Retaining Wall

anchored Retaining Wall

Stability Conditions for Retaining Wall:

A retaining wall must have to be stable against the upcoming forces.The properties that is needed to stabilise the retaining wall are–

1. The retaining wall must be strong enough to withstand with the bending moment and shear forces acting on it.

2. The retaining wall should not be slide.

3. Retaining wall should not topple or overturn.

4. Maximum pressure at base should not exceed the safe bearing capacity of soil.

Know more about Retaining wall at wikipedia RETAINING WALL WIKIPEDIA


Atterberg Limits

atterberg limits

Atterberg Limits:

Every soil contains water in its pore spaces and in the grain too. Atterberg limits are the certain water limits in the soil which demonstrates the critical positions of water content.Behavior of fine grained soil changes with the percent of water it contains..

Depending on the percentage of water present in the soil ,there could be four states:

  • Solid State
  • Semi-Solid State
  • Plastic State
  • Liquid State

Transformation from each state to other takes place upon the content of water present and grain conditions of soil. Depending upon the characteristics shown by the soil each of the four stages and their relative positions could be demonstrated. These four limits were invented by a Swedish Chemist Albert Attreberg and later they were developed by Arthur Casagrande.

atterberg limits


Definition of Shrinkage Limit:

Shrinkage is the volume change of soil. It is the minimum water content in which the soil changes its state from solid to semi-solid. It is the water content in which further reduction of water will not cause any volume reduction in soil. Shrinkage Limit of soil can be determined by the test method prescribed in ASTM D4943.

Definition of Plastic Limit:

Plastic Limit is the minimum water content at which the soil changes its state from semi-solid to plastic. Plastic Limit is determined by making a thread of 3.2 mm by rolling in a flat surface. When there is hair line crack arises. the corresponding water content is determined by oven-drying the specimen.This water content is known as plastic limit. The test procedure to determine the plastic limit was demonstrated in ASTM D4318.

Definition of Liquid Limit:

Liquid limit is the water content at which the soil changes its state from plastic to liquid.Clayey soil has very low shear strength at higher water content at liquid limit. Arthur Casagrande proposed a test procedure for determining the liquid limit. Casagrande proposed liquid limit determination method is mostly used method for liquid limit determination. Casagrande proposed a special apparatus with a groove.The test method is described on ASTM D4318.

To know more about Atterberg Limits  CLICK HERE


Beam Design Procedure

doubly reinforced beam section

OK,Guys! Hope you are fine.

Today we are going to learn about Doubly Reinforced Beam Design in Ultimate Stress Design (USD) method. Many complications in design always been seen in different tutorials and today we are going to show you how simply you can design a doubly reinforced beam for a structure.

Before going to Beam Design fist have a tour to Beam characteristics.

What is a BEAM?

A beam is generally a structural member that carries load along its transverse axis. It resists the load through bending and through the compressive stress carrying capacity of concrete and through the tension carrying capacity of reinforcement.


A Concrete is a stone like material which is artificially prepared by using a bonding material and inert materials. Bonding material are generally Cement(Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Portland Composite Cement (PCC)) and inert materials are generally crushed stone,sand etc.

What is Reinforcement?

High yield reinforcement is a building material that is prepared from mild steel. Reinforcement in beam carries tension that comes in the total life of the structure.


Singly reinforced beam is one in which the steel buried in the concrete lies only in the tension side of the section.

Singly reinforced beam section

Singly reinforced beam section

Sometimes the upcoming moment from the load is such that only a singly reinforced beam can not support it. In this case, Reinforcement is also provided in the compression side of the beam. This type of beam is called doubly reinforced beam.

doubly reinforced beam section

doubly reinforced beam section

Assumptions in Beam Design:

1. Plane sections remain plane after Bending.

2.Strain distribution is linear for both steel and concrete and varies directly with the distance from the Neutral Axis.

3. All of the compressive force are taken up by the concrete only and all of the tensile stress are taken up by the reinforcement only.(N.B. Concrete has a capacity of taking tensile stress which is almost 10-15 percent of its compressive strength carrying capacity)

Evaluation of Design Parameters:

Total compressive force,   C = 0.85fc’ ba  (Refer stress diagram)
Total Tensile force,  T = As fy

C = T

or, 0.85fc’ ba = As fy

or, a = As fy / (0.85fc’ b)

= pd fy / (0.85 fc’)   (putting p = As / bd)

Moment of Resistance,         Mn   = 0.85fc’ ba (d – a/2)
                                             or , Mn  = As fy (d – a/2)
                                                            = p bd fy [ d – (pdfyb / 1.7fc’) ]

= w fc’ [ 1 – 0.59 w] bd^2       (putting w = r fy / fc’)

Mn  = Kn bd2      (putting Kn = w fc’ [ 1 – 0.59 w)

Mu  = f Mn

=f Kn bd^2 ,    where f  = Strength Reduction Factor

Balanced Reinforcement Ratio (Pb)

From strain diagram, similar triangles

cb / d  =  0.003 / (0.003 + fy / Es)  ;  Es = 29x10^6 psi

cb / d  = 87,000 / (87,000+fy)

Pb   = Asb / bd

= 0.85fc’ ab / (fy. d)

= β1 ( 0.85 fc’ / fy) [ 87,000 / (87,000+fy)]

In case of statically determinate structure ductile failure is essential for proper moment redistribution. Hence, for beams the ACI code limits the max. amount of steel to 75% of that required for balanced section. For practical purposes, however the reinforcement ratio        (r = As / bd) should not normally exceed 50% to avoid congestion of reinforcement & proper placing of concrete.

P =0.75 P b

Min. reinforcement is greater of the following:

As(min)  =    3Öfc’ x bwd / fy   or    200 bwd / fy

rmin  =    3Öfc’ / fy   or    200 / fy


For statically determinate member, when the flange is in tension, the bw is replaced with 2bw or bf whichever is smaller
The above min steel requirement need not be applied, if at every section, Ast provided is at least 1/3 greater than the analysis
Design Procedures:


Shear Wall Design using ETABS


Books Name:Shear Wall Design According to UBS 1997 ON ETABS
Author/Writer: ETABS
Publisher: ETABS
Edition:March 2000

Shear Wall: Definitions and Design

Definition of Shear Wall:

Shear Wall is a structural system that has bracing that prevents the lateral loads coming on the structures such as earthquake. In any structure it is very important to design the lateral load carrying system including that of shear wall. Shear wall is also known as braced wall line.


Materials used for making shear wall could be concrete, woods or plywood. In a building where it is necessary to place an elevator, generally the shear wall is built on surrounding the elevator or the lift.

Shear Wall Design

ETABS is a worldwide known software for designing structures in various international codes. Shear wall can also be designed using ETABS.Download the shear wall design manual using ETABS.



Properties of Concrete


<h2>Concrete Definition:</h2>

Concrete is a stone like material prepared from a binder material with inert material. It is a artificial stone for using in structures. concrete<h2>Properties of Concrete:</h2>

Concrete possesses some characteristics/properties. The properties of concrete are very complex to analyze in perfect amount. But the main properties of concrete are–

  • It can take very high compressive strength.
  • Tension carrying capacity of concrete is very low.
  • Concrete undergoes in shrinkage initially after its placing and it continues since its life cycle.
  • Concrete deflects in certain amount which is known as creep of concrete.
  • Unit weight of concrete is 2400 kg/m3.
  • Concrete expands if temperature increases.

<h2>Concrete Compressive strength tests:</h2>

  • Cube tests
  • Cylinder tests


What is meant by Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete?

images (1)

Creep and shrinkage are one of the many properties of concrete. Questions about Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete are often to arise in many civil engineering works and also in the exams and interview board. Here we clarifying the things.

Creep of Concrete:


Creep of concrete is a certain property of concrete. Creep of concrete generally arises from the Calcium Silicate Hydrates in the hardened cement paste. Generally creep is defined as the time dependent deformation of the concrete.

Creep of concrete occurs due to the presence of stresses that are below the yield stress but that is standing on the structure for a long time.

images (1)

Shrinkage of Concrete


Concrete undergoes a change in volume due to drying or losing of water. Volume change is one of the most severe properties for the durability and stability of concrete and therefore shrinkage of concrete need much attention.
There are four types of shrinkage:

  • Drying Shrinkage
  • Autogenous Shrinkage
  • Plastic Shrinkage
  • Carbonation Shrinkage

Know More about Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete in wkipedia


Common Civil Engineering Interview Questions

Vicat Apparatus- consistency measuring

Civil engineering has five major parts and of course a lot of Civil Engineering Interview Questions arises from each of them with too much definitions to equations. We are going to present some civil engineering interview questions for the students and for the job seekers.

Question-1:What is hydration?

Answer: Hydration is the reaction between cement and water.

Question-2: What is curing of concrete?

Answer: Curing is the application of water to the concrete surface for the proper hydration to occur.

Question-3: What are the methods of curing?

Answer: Generally water is applied by various means. The common methods of curing are:

  • Spraying
  • Wet Covering of surface
  • Ponding
  • Steam Curing
  • Application of curing compounds/admixtures

Question-4: For the quality control of cement what tests are done?

Answer: The tests that are required to check the quality of cement are–

  • Initial and Final Setting time
  • Consistency
  • Tensile strength
  • Soundness

Question-5: What may be the mix proportion for M10 grade concrete?

Answer: Cement: Sand: Aggregate = 1:3:6

Question-6: When the possibility of segregation is much?

Answer: Segregation of concrete may occur if the concrete mix is-

  • If the mix is too wet
  • If the ratio of coarser aggregate is much more thatn the others proportions
  • Coarser grading

Question-7: What happens to ordinary cement after casting?

Answer: Ordinary cement shrinks after drying.

Question-8: With what compounds of cement the hydration takes place?

Answer: Silicates( Tricalcium Silicate and Dicalcium silicate),Tricalcium aluminate,tricalcium alumino ferrite

Question-9: When an aggregate may be called as flaky?

Answer: When the least dimension of the aggregate is less than 60%, Then the aggeregate may call as flaky.

Question-10: Why Vicat’s apparatus is used?

Answer: To determine the Consistency of cement vicats apparatus is used.

Vicat Apparatus- consistency measuring

Vicat Apparatus- consistency measuring










Question-11: What are least cover dimensions for different structural member?


Footing : Minimum 50mm
column : Minimum 40mm
beam : Minimum 25mm
slab : Minimum 20mm


Question-12:  Why I section Beams are preferred?

Answer: I-section is prefered beacuse-

  • it provides large stiffness in lateral direction
  • It has large Moment of inertia.
  • I section has the lowest shape factor.

Question-13: What is shuttering?

Answer: To place the permanent structure a temporary structure of specifird shape and dimension is builtt on the site which is termed as shuttering.

Question-14: What is the difference between deflection and deformation?

Answer: Deflection is a temporary displacement where as deformation is a permanent displacement.

Question-15: What is meant by open-graded aggregates?

Answer: Open graded aggregates are the aggregates that have the coarser size aggregates and as a result the concrete produces more air voids.

Question-16: What is coping?

Answer: Coping is a arrangement of wall to protect the wall from water and environment.

Question-17: What is the specific gravity of cement?

Answer: 3.15(in general)

Question-18: What is development length?

Answer: Development length is an embedded extra length .

Question-19: What is the differences between working stress method and limit state design method?

Answer: Working stress method considers the elasticity of the materials and never  loaded beyond the elastic limit where as limit state design is based on plastic method.

Question-20: What is meant by TMT bar?

Answer: TMT means Thermo Mechanicaly Treated. This bar has higher strength and higher corrosion resistance to the exposed environment




20 Interview Questions For Civil Engineers

Compaction Curve

20 Interview Questions For Civil Engineers

Civil engineers are in need to know the viva questions frequently. Often the Viva Questions are so ridiculous and tough that it is almost impossible for the engineers to answer them as there are too many equations and citations. Here we are going to represent the 20 most viva questions and their answers.

Question-1: What is the FM(Fineness Modulus)?

Answer: FM( Fineness Modulus is an empirical figure obtained by summing up the cumulative percentage of materials retained on each of the sieve excluding 0.075 mm sieve and dividing the sum by 100.

Question-2: What is the FM value for Sand and Stone?

Answer: For sand the FM value varies from 2.5-4.0 and for stone FM value varies between 6.5-8.0.

Question-3: What is LAA?

Answer: LAA means Los Angeles Abrasion Test which represents the strength of stone to withstand with the abrasion that occurs during the life cycle of the stone.

Question-4: If the W/C cement ration is less what will be the strength of concrete?

Answer: If W/C ratio decreases concrete strength will rise up.

Question-5: What is Compaction?

Answer: Compaction is a process by which the volume of the soil decreases by using any mechanical devices and by pulling out the available air in the soil.

Question-6: What is Consolidation?

Answer : Consolidation is a natural process by which the soil volume reduces and it becomes in compacted form by pulling out the water and decreasing the pore spaces between the particles.

Question-7: Say name of the compaction test methods?

Answer : 1. Standard Proctor Test
2. Modified Proctor Test

Question-8: Draw The compaction Curve?


Compaction Curve

Compaction Curve








Question-9: How can you measure workability of the concrete on field?

Answer: Workability can be measured by slump test.

Question 10: What is the normal slump value for concrete?

Answer: Normally slump vale varies between 50 mm-100 mm for normal concrete.

Question 11: What is the dimensions of Slump Mold?

Answer: Height=12 inch, Top width=4 inch and bottom width= 8 inch

Question 12: What are the types of slump?

Answer: Slump in concrete are of three types:

  • True slump
  • Shear slump
  • Collapse
  • slump types




Question 13: What is Dewatering?

Answer: Dewatering means removing the water from any specified construction place so that the construction work can run smoothly.

Question 14: What is Hydration?

Answer: Hydration is the reaction between cement and water.

Question 15: What is the distance of Farakka Dam from the border of Bangladesh?

Answer: The distance is 16.5 km from the districh Chapainawabgonj of Bangladesh border.

Question 16: What test is done to measure the required compaction on field?

Answer: Compaction test by sand cone replacement method.

Question 17: Why do we use steel in concrete? why not other metals?

Answer: We use steel in concrete as the co-efficient of thermal expansion of concrete and steel is almost same and steel has very good strength to withstand with the tensile loads.

Question 18: How do designers design the compressed member when there is no use of steel?

Answer: Then it was designed to produce very small to no tensile stress in the section so that the section will be very large.

Question 19: What is Geo-textile?

Answer: Geo-textile is a permeable synthetic fabric that is produced from plyestar,ploy ethylene to separate the soil or to filter the materials, or to protect the banks from being eroded.

Question 20: What types soil is sand?

Answer: Sand is cohesionless soil.



Sediment Load, Bed Load and Suspended Load-definitions

suspended load-bed load

suspended load-bed load

Sediment Load:

All of the natural channels,streams generally carries sediment with the flow it has.It is generally a burden of flowing water which is carried by the velocity of flowing water and is termed as sediment load.

Bed Load:

Bed load is that type of sediment load in which the sediment is carried along the bed of the channel with occasional jumps into the channel.

Suspended Load:

Suspended load is the one in which the material is maintained in suspension of the flowing water. (295)

How to Download Books Using Torrent-Video Tutorial

Watch this video to know How to Download Books Using Torrent


How to Download E-Books

how to download e-books

Watch this video to know how to download E-books and more!!!

how to download e-books

BCS Civil Engineering Written Questions Solve-21st BCS


21st BCS Civil Engineering Written Questions and Solve–


Transportation Engineering:

Question-1: a) Write down the function of ballast in a railway track?


What is Ballast?

Ballast is the foundation of railway track and it distributes the load to the underlying layers in a railway track.Generally rocks or gravels are used as a ballast material.The gravels covers the sub-grade of railway track and distributes the load the underlying layers.

Functions of Ballast:

  • To provide a hard layer for the sleepers to rest on.
  • To distribute the loads.
  • For easy maintenance of railway track without disturbing the underlying layers.
  • To prevent the growth of plants and vegetation etc.
  • To hold the sleepers in position during the train passing.
  • To maintain the lateral stability of the railway track.
  • To ensure proper drainage of water.

Question:1(b)–Define Yard.Discuss the important points needs to be considered in designing the Marshalling Yard.



A yard is a space/area that contains a complex series of railroads, tracks and also contains sheds for maintaining,repairing storing,joining of rail coaches and locomotives.

Marshall Yard are of three types:

  • Hump Yard
  • Gravity Yard
  • Flat Yard

Important factors to be considered during designing of Marshalling yard:

(If anyone know please contribute the answer of this section in comment box)

Question:1(c)–Design the rate of super-elevation for a curve of radius 400 m and speed of 80 km/hr. Also check the co-efficient of lateral friction.(G.C. Singh,pp-167)


For mixed traffic conditions super-elevation, e=(0.75V)^2/127R = (0.75X80)^2/(127X400) = 0.0708 = 1 in 14.12

check for co-efficient of lateral frictions,  = (V^2/127R)- 0.067 = (80^2/127X400)-0.067 = 0.059

As the value is less than 0.15 the safe value,the design in safe with a super-elevation of 1 in 15 (answer). (373)

Unit Conversions for Engineers

unit conversion for engineers

unit conversion for engineers (157)

Surveying and its Classifications

surveying classifications

surveying classifications


The art of determining relative positions of objects on the surface of the earth by taking measurements in the horizontal and vertical planes , is called surveying.

Surveying may primarily divided into the following types:

a) Plane Surveying:

The surveys in which the curvature of earth is not taken into consideration are known as plane surveys. These surveys extend over small areas.he degree of accuracy obtained in this type of surveying is comparatively low.Generally areas less than 250 sq. kilometers are treated as plane.When the surveys extend over limited areas,the difference in length between the arc and subtended chord for any two points on the surfaceof the earth is only about 0.1 m for a distance of 18.2 km,0.3 m for 4.3 km and 0.5m for 91 km. Similiarly,the difference between the sum of the angles of a spherical triangle on the earth’s surface and that of the angles of the corresponding plane triangle is only one second for every 195.5 sq. km of area.

b)Geodetic Suveying:

The surveys in which the curvature of the earth is taken into account is called geodetic surveying.These surveys extend over large areas( more than 250 square km) and where the degree of accuracy required is great.

Download Engineering Suveying Handbook


Best Practice in Steel Construction Commercial Building Download


Books Name: Best Practice in Steel Construction Commercial Building Guidance for the Architects, Designers and Constructors

Author/Writer: The Steel Construction Institute
Publisher: The Steel Construction Institute

Best Practice in Steel Construction Commercial Building

Best Practice in Steel Construction Commercial Building Guidance for the Architects, Designers and Constructors DOWNLOAD FROM HERE


EUROCODE 4 PART 2- Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures Download


Books Name:EUROCODE 4 PART 2-Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures (General Rules and Rules for Bridges)
Author/Writer: European Committee for Standardization

Publisher: European Committee for Standardization
Edition: 1 September 2004


EUROCODE 4 PART 2-Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures Download from Here


Residential structural Design Guide : 2000 Edition – Download


Books Name: Residential structural Design Guide : 2000 Edition

Author/Writer: US Department of Housing and Urban Development(Office of Policy Development and Research)

Publisher: Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing



Residential structural Design Guide

Residential structural Design Guide : 2000 Edition – Download From Here


Construction and Design of Multistorey Building . ppt-Download


Powerpoint Presentation Name: Construction and Design of Multistorey Building

Author/Writer: Abhimanyu Parida
Publisher: allboutfreebooks.com


Construction and Design of Multistorey Building . ppt-Download


HVAC Design Guide Download

Books Name: HVAC Design Guide (California Residential New Construction)

Author/Writer: California Energy Commission
Publisher: California Energy Commission

HVAC Design Guide

HVAC Design Guide Download From Here


Building Framing Systems and Best Practices (pdf)


Books Name: Building Framing Systems and Best Practices

Author/Writer: Federal Emergency Management Agency
Publisher: Federal Emergency Management Agency

Building Framing Systems and Best Practices

Building Framing Systems and Best Practices (pdf) Download From Here


Best Practise in Steel Construction Industrial Building


Books Name: Best Practise in Steel Construction Industrial Building – Guidance for Architects, Designers and Constructors

Author/Writer: The Steel Construction Institute (SCI)
Publisher: The Steel Construction Institute (SCI)

Best Practise in Steel Construction Industrial Building



Best Practise in Steel Construction Industrial Building



Best Practise in Steel Construction Industrial Building – Guidance for Architects, Designers and Constructors Download From Here


CFD Algorithms for Hydraulic Engineering – Download

Books Name: CFD Algorithms for Hydraulic Engineering
Author/Writer: Nils Reidar B. Olsen
Publisher: The Norweigan University of Science and Technology
ISBN: 82-7598-044-5
Edition: 1st



CFD Algorithms for Hydraulic Engineering – Download From Here





Eurocode 3-Design of Steel Structures-EN 1993-1-11

Books Name: Eurocode 3-Design of Steel Structures-EN 1993-1-11-Design of Structures with Tension Components (prEN 1993-1-11:20xx)

Author/Writer: CEN (European Committee for Standardization)
Publisher: CEN
Edition: 13th February 2013

Eurocode 3-Design of Steel Structures-EN 1993-1-11



1. General

2. Basis of Design

3. Material

4. Durability for Wires and Ropes/Strands

5. Structural Analysis of Cable Structures

6. Ultimate Limit States

7. Serviceability Limit States

8. Vibration of Cables

9. Fatigue

Annex-A-Product Components for Tension Components



Eurocode 3-Design of Steel Structures-Part 1.11- Design of Structures with Tension Components (prEN 1993-1-11: 20xx) Download Link


Construction Equipment Repairer -US ARMY-Download

Books Name: Construction Equipment Repairer (HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS)
Author/Writer: US Army
Publisher: US ARMY CORPS.
Edition: Edition B


This book is published by US ARMY CORPS. OF ENGINEERS and is a subcourse designed to teach the students the basic systems of construction machinaries. Many information is provided to adjust and repair of hydraulic pumps and valves used on engineering.

Construction Equipment Repairer -US ARMY-Download From Here


Theory of Plates and Shells -Timoshenko-Download

Books Name:Theory of Plates and Shells
Author/Writer: S. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky Krieger

Publisher: Mc-Grawhill
ISBN: 0-07-064779-8
Edition: Second


Theory of Plates and Shells


Old is Gold!This is a very basic and one of the classic book on the theory of shells and plates. As a lot of changes and modifications come across the path of shell structures so this second edition of this book also comes with several modification. The principal edition to th second edition is:

1. an article on deflection of plates due to transverse shear

2.an article on stress concentrations around a circular hole in a bent plate

3. a chapter on bending of  plates resting on a elastic foundation

4. a chapter on bending of anisotropic plates

5.a chapter certain special and approximate methods used in plate analysis.

Theory of Plates and Shells -Timishenko-Download From Here


Numerical Analysis In Soil Mechanics-Download Link for 4 Books

Books Name: Analysis of Staggered BEM-FEM Solutions in Soil-Structure Interaction
Author/Writer:  D.C. Rizos, M. ASCE, Z.Y. WANG
Publisher: Research Paper
ISBN: Research Paper
Edition: Research Paper


Books Name: Modeling Techniques in Geomechanics
Author/Writer: TRB Committee on Modeling Techniques in Geomechanics
Publisher: Umakant Das,


Books Name: Numerical Representation of Elastic Foundation
Author/Writer: Dr. Eric Drumm and dr. Richard Bennett


Books Name: Soil-Structure Interaction (pdf format)
Author/Writer: N/A


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Two Way Slab Design Excel Sheet Download

Books Name: Two Way Slab Design Excel Sheet

Author/Writer: allaboutfreebooks.com
Publisher: allaboutfreebooks.com

This excel sheet contains two way slab design procedure using ACI 318-11 code and using finite element method.

Two Way Slab Design Excel Sheet


Two Way Slab Design Excel Sheet Download From Here




Roads & Highways Department (RHD)-Technical Specifications

Books Name: Roads & Highways Department (RHD)-Technical Specifications (সড়ক ও জনপথ অধিদপ্তর -বাংলাদেশ)

Author/Writer: RHD-Bnagladesh

Publisher: RHD



Roads & Highways Department (RHD)-Technical Specifications DOWNLOAD FROM HERE


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Author/Writer: গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ সরকার

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Concrete Column Design Spreadsheet-Download

Books Name:  Concrete Column Design Spreadsheet

Author/Writer: www.emgineering-international .com
Publisher: allaboutfreebooks.com
CODE-: ACI 318-11

This Concrete Column Design Spreadsheet follows ACI 318-11 code.Please use this software with sufficient check and don’t forget to check your calculations manually.

Concrete Column Design Spreadsheet

Concrete Column Design Spreadsheet-Download

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Networking and Network Security Books Download

3G Handset and Network Design

Books Name: 3G Handset and Network Design
Author/Writer: Geoff Varall,Roger Belcher
Publisher: Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0-471-22936-9

Edition: 1st


802.11 security

Books Name: 802.11 Security
Author/Writer: Bob Fleck, Bruce Potter
Publisher: O’Reilly
ISBN: 0-596-00290-4

Edition: December 2002


802.11 security

Books Name: 802.11 Wireless Lan Fundamentals
Author/Writer: Pejman Roshan, Jonathan Leary
Publisher: Cisco Press




Books Name: TDD-CDMA for Wireless Communications
Author/Writer: Riaz EsmailZadeh, Masao Nakagawa
Publisher: Artech House
ISBN: 1-58053-371-X




Handbook of Material Testing – Download

Books Name:Handbook of Material Testing
Author/Writer:Indian Railways Institute of Civil Engineering
Publisher: IRICEN




Handbook of Material Testing – Download From Here


Circular Column Design Excel Spreadsheet-Download

Excel Program Name: Circular Column Design Spreadsheet

This excel sheet follows ACI 318-11 code to design the circular column with spiral and without spirals(ties)

circular column design

Circular Column Design Excel Spreadsheet-Download From Here


Slab Reinforcement Details

cross section of slab and reinforcement details




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Pile Cap Design Spreadsheet- Download

Books Name: Pile Cap Design

Author/Writer:Rod Webster
Publisher: allaboutfreebooks.com



Pile cap design is one of the major task of civil engineers. This spreadsheet(Excel sheet) consists of Pile Cap Design according to BS Code 8666:2000 and is created by Rod Webster who is the principle author of Reinforced Concrete Councils.

For further information, please contact
Concrete Innovation & Design
43 Matthews Drive
Maidenbower, Crawley
West Sussex RH10 7HJ

tel/fax: 01293-881666

email: r_m.webster@which.net

Pile Cap Design Spreadsheet- Download From Here


300 Solved Problems in Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering-Download

Books Name: 300 Solved Problems in Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering
Author/Writer: Luis A Prieto-Porter, Ph. D.,PE




This book is about 300 Solved Problems in Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering. There are three types of problems are included:

  • Easy Problems-that is est suited for Bachelor of Science level (B. Sc.) and are the basic problems on geotechnical and foundation engineering
  • Moderate Problems- Best suited for M. Sc. level students and can be a guide for the teachers
  • Real Life Problems-Real life geotechnical and foundation engineering problems and their solutions are included here.This will help the engineers who practices geotechnical engineering and for the structural engineer who wants to design foundation of structures.

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The Electrical Engineering Handbook – Download

Books Name:  The Electrical Engineering Handbook
Author/Writer: Richard C. Dorf

Publisher: CRC Press

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Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications – Download

Books Name: Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications

Author/Writer: E. John Finnemore

Publisher: Joseph B. Franzini
Edition: tenth

fluid mechanics with engineering applications

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Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures by Garg Download

Books Name: Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures
Author/Writer: Santosh Kumar Garg (S K Garg)

Publisher: Khanna Publishers

ISBN: 81-7409-047-9

Edition: 19th

Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures by Garg is a very popular and fabolous book in the arena of irrigation engineering and water resources engineering. Ths book covers about everything that is related with irrigation engineering and that related part of hydraulic structures. Since its publication in the year of 1976, this book has been treated as one of the classic irrigation engineering book of all time. So the demand for Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures is still the same as it was before.

Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures by Garg

Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures

There are some revisions and additions to this 19th volume of Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures by Garg. S.I units had been adopted, chapters are included and questions of different goverment civil engineering jobs are also included in this text. Designs of irrigation channels using Kennedy equations and kutters equations are also discussed keeping in view the characteristics of indian rivers. This will help to obtain certain and specific data about indian rivers and also help to design aluvial rivers and channels. Detailed study of sediment deposit and sediment carrying characteristics are included in this edition. Various irrigation techniques using surface irrigation method and sub-surface irrigation method are classified and discussed. Various terms related to irrigation engineering such as field capacity, root zone depth, root development,water characteristics, ions in water, toxicity of irrigation water, capillary water, delta of water, duty of water are discussed elaborately. Crop period and base peroid,crop seasons and indian agriculture,Effective rainfall.consumptive use of water, consumption irrigation requirements,net irrigation requirement(NIR) etc discussed briefly to meet the students requirements. Chapters named canal irrigation system and Sediment transport and design of irrigation channels are included in the Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures by Garg. Lining of irrigation channel is very important so, a chapter named lining of irrigation channels and economics of lining are included. Different hydrologic computation and examples are also included in a different chapter of Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures by Garg.

Chapters Included in Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures by Garg are:

1. Irrigation Techniques and Quality of Irrigation Water

2. Water Requirements of Crops 3. Canal Irrigation System

4. Sediment Transport and Design of Irrigation Channels

5. Lining of Irrigation Canals and Economics of Lining

6. Reclamation of Water logged and Saline Soils for Agricultural Purposes

7. Hydrology and Run-off Computations for Design of Hydraulic Structures across Rivers and Streams

8. River, their Behavior, Control and Training

9. Diversion Head Works

10. Hydraulic Jump and its usefulness in the Design of Irrigation Structures

11. Theories of Seepage and Design of Weirs and Barrages

12. Canal Falls

13. Regulators Modules, and Miscellaneous Canal Structures

14. Cross Drainage Works

15. Construction of Culverts and Small Road Bridges Across Drains and Canals

16. Ground water Hydrology and Construction of Wells and Tubewells

17. Dams in General and a few dams in Particular

18. Reservoirs and Planning for Dam Reservoirs

19. Design and Construction of Gravity Dams

20. Earthen Dams and Rockfill Dams

21. Spillways, Energy Dissipators,and Spillway Gates

22. Outlet Works Through Dams and River Intakes

23. Pressure Conduits 24. Hydro-electric Power

25. River Navigation 26. Tank Irrigation

27. Arch and Buttress Dams

28. Irrigation Revenue Rates

29. Chapterwise Multichoice Objective Questions

30. Test Paper on objective Questions

31. Objective Questions of Engineering Services Exams

32. Objective Questions of AMIE Exams(Upto year 2004)

Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures by Garg Download From Here


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